How_Products_Are_Made__An_Illustrated_Guide_to_Product_Manufacturing__Volume_1

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NEIL SCHLA GER, Editor
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PRODUCTS
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NEIL SCHLAGER, Editor
GaleResearchinc. * DETROIT - WASHINGTON, D.C. * LONDON
STAFF
Neil Schlager, Editor
Elisabeth Morrison, Associate Editor
Christine Jeryan, Kyung-Sun Lim, Kimberley A. McGrath, Bridget Travers, Robyn V. Young,
Contributing Editors
Meggin M. Condino, Jeffrey Muhr, Janet Witalec, Contributing Associate Editors
Victoria B. Cariappa, Research Manager
Maureen Richards, Research Supervisor
Donna Melnychenko, Research Associate
Jaema Paradowski, Research Assistant
Mary Beth Trimper, Production Director
Shanna Heilveil, Production Assistant
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Mark C. Howell, Cover Designer
Electronic illustrations provided by Hans & Cassady, Inc. of Westerville, Ohio.
While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale Research Inc. neither
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All rights to this publication will be vigorously defended.
Copyright i 1994
Gale Research Inc.
835 Penobscot Building
Detroit, MI 48226-4094
All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form.
ISBN 0-8103-8907-X
ISSN 1072-5091
Printed in the United States of America
Published simultaneously in the United Kingdom
by Gale Research Intemational Limited
(An affiliated company of Gale Research Inc.)
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The trademark ITP is used under license.
Contents
Introduction ................. vii
Contributors ................. xi
Acknowledgments .......... xiii
Air Bag ................... 1
Aluminum Foil ............... 8
Artificial Limb .............. 14
Aspirin ................... 19
Automobile ................. 24
Automobile Windshield ...... 31
Baking Soda ............... 35
Ball Bearing ................ 39
Bar Code Scanner .......... 44
Baseball ................... 50
Baseball Glove ............. 55
Battery ................... 60
Bicycle Shorts ............... 65
Blood Pressure Monitor ...... 69
Blue Jeans .................. 74
Book ................... 80
Brick ................... 86
Bulletproof Vest ............. 91
Candle ................... 96
Carbon Paper...... ....... 100
Cellophane Tape ... ....... .105
Ceramic Tile ....... ....... .109
Chalk ............. ....... .114
Cheese ............ ....... .119
Chewing Gum...... ....... .124
Chocolate ................. 129
Coffee .................... 134
Combination Lock ......... 139
Combine .................. 143
Compact Disc ............. 148
Compact Disc Player ....... 153
Concrete .................. 158
Cooking Oil ............... 164
Corrugated Cardboard ..... 169
Cutlery ................... 174
Expanded Polystyrene Foam
(EPF) .................... 180
Eyeglass Lens ............. 185
File Cabinet ............... 190
Fire Extinguisher ........... 194
Floppy Disk ............... 199
Gold ..................... 204
Golf Cart ................. 209
Grinding Wheel ........... 214
Guitar .................... 219
Helicopter ................. 223
Jet Engine ................. 230
Laboratory Incubator....... 236
Laser Guided Missile ....... 242
Laundry Detergent ......... 247
Lawn Mower .............. 252
Light Bulb ................. 256
Light-Emitting Diode (LED) . . 261
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Lipstick ...............
Liquid Crystal Display
(LCD) ................
Lubricating Oil ........
Mattress ..............
Microwave Oven ......
Mirror ................
Nail Polish............
Necktie ...............
Optical Fiber..........
Paint .................
Pantyhose.............
Peanut Butter..........
Pencil ................
Pesticide ..............
Porcelain .............
Postage Stamp ........
Pressure Gauge .......
Rayon ................
Refrigerator ...........
Revolver ..............
Rubber Band ..........
Running Shoe .........
Saddle ...............
Salsa .................
Sandpaper............
.. . 267 Satellite Dish .............. 390
Screwdriver ............... 395
... . 272 Seismograph .............. 400
....277 Shaving Cream .............406
....281 Soda Bottle ............... 410
... . 286 Solar Cell ............... 414
.... 291 Spark Plug ............... 420
.... 297 Stainless Steel ............. 424
.... 301 Stapler ................430
.... 305 Stethoscope ............... 434
....310 Sugar ................ 439
... . 315 Super Glue ............... 444
.... 320 Thermometer .............. 448
326 Tire ............... 453
....330 Tortilla Chip ............... 458
.... 335 Trumpet ............... 464
.... 340 Umbrella ............... 469
.... 345 Washing Machine ......... 473
.350 Watch ............... 478
.... 355 Wind Turbine ............. 482
.361 Wine ............... 488
.367 Wool ............... 494
.... 371 Zipper ............... 500
376 Zirconium ............... 505
.... 381 .Index ............... 509
.... 385
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Introduction
About the Series
Welcome to How Products Are Made: An Illustrated Guide to Product Manufacturing.
This series provides detailed yet accessible information on the manufacture of a
variety of items, from everyday household products to heavy machinery to sophisticated
electronic equipment. With step-by-step descriptions of processes, simple
explanations of technical terms and concepts, and clear, easy-to-follow illustrations,
the series will be useful to a wide audience.
In each volume of How Products Are Made, you will find products from a broad range
of manufacturing areas: food, clothing, electronics, transportation, machinery, instruments,
sporting goods, and more. Some are intermediate goods sold to manufacturers
of other products, while others are retail goods sold directly to consumers. You will
find products made from a variety of materials, and you will even find products such
as precious metals and minerals that are not "made" so much as they are extracted and
refined.
Organization
Every volume in the series is comprised of many individual entries, each covering a
single product; Volume 1 includes more than 100 entries, arranged alphabetically.
Although each entry focuses on the product's manufacturing process, it also provides
a wealth of other information: who invented the product or how it has developed, how
it works, what materials it is made of, how it is designed, quality control procedures
used, byproducts generated during its manufacture, future applications, and books and
periodical articles containing more information.
To make it easier for users to find what they are looking for, the entries are broken up
into standard sections. Among the sections you will find are:
* Background
* History
* Raw Materials
* Design
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* The Manufacturing Process
* Quality Control
* Byproducts
* The Future
* Where To Learn More
The illustrations accompanying each entry provide you with a better sense of how the
manufacturing process actually works. Uncomplicated and easy to understand, these
illustrations generally follow the step-by-step description of the manufacturing
process found in the text.
Bold-faced items in the text refer the reader to other entries in this volume.
Volume 1 also contains an added bonus: approximately ten percent of the entries include
special boxed sections. Written by William S. Pretzer, a manufacturing historian and
curator at the Henry Ford Museum, these sections describe interesting historical developments
related to a product.
Finally, Volume 1 contains a general subject index with important terms, processes,
materials, and people. Here as in the text, bold-faced items refer the reader to main
entries on the subject.
Contributors/Advisors
The entries in Volume 1 were written by a skilled team of technical writers and engineers,
often in cooperation with manufacturers and industry associations.
In addition, a group of advisors assisted in the formulation of the series and of Volume
1 in particular. They are:
Marshall Galpern
Staff Engineer
General Motors Corporation
Dr. Michael J. Kelly
Director
Manufacturing Research Center
Georgia Institute of Technology
Jeanette Mueller-Alexander
Reference Librarian/Business Subject Specialist
Hayden Library
Arizona State University
Dr. William S. Pretzer
Curator
Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village
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Diane A. Richmond
Head
Science and Technology Information Center
Chicago Public Library
Suggestions
Your questions, comments, and suggestions are welcome. Please send all such correspondence
to:
The Editor
How Products Are Made
Gale Research Inc.
835 Penobscot Building
Detroit, MI 48226
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