This page intentionally left blank
Marjorie Kelly Cowan
MICROBIOLOGY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH, THIRD EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue
of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009 and 2006. No part of this publication may be
reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system,
without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited
to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers
outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 QDB/QDB 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Vice President, Editor-in-Chief: Marty Lange
Vice President, EDP: Kimberly Meriwether David
Senior Director of Development: Kristine Tibbetts
Sponsoring Editor: Lynn M. Breithaupt
Senior Developmental Editor: Kathleen R. Loewenberg
Marketing Manager: Amy L. Reed
Lead Project Manager: Sheila M. Frank
Senior Buyer: Laura Fuller
Senior Media Project Manager: Jodi K. Banowetz
Senior Designer: Laurie B. Janssen
Cover Image: Dr. Volker Brinkmann/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.
Senior Photo Research Coordinator: John C. Leland
Photo Research: Emily Tietz/Editorial Image, LLC
Compositor: Electronic Publishing Services Inc., NYC
Typeface: 10/12 Palatino LT Std
All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cowan, M. Kelly.
Microbiology : a systems approach / Marjorie Kelly Cowan. — 3rd ed.
ISBN 978–0–07–352252–4 — ISBN 0–07–352252–X (hard copy : alk.
paper) 1. Microbiology. I. Title.
616.9’041 — dc22
The Main Themes of Microbiology 1
The Chemistry of Biology 27
Tools of the Laboratory: The Methods
for Studying Microorganisms 55
Prokaryotic Profiles: The Bacteria and Archaea 80
Eukaryotic Cells and Microorganisms 108
An Introduction to the Viruses 139
Microbial Nutrition, Ecology, and Growth 168
Microbial Metabolism: The Chemical
Crossroads of Life 198
Microbial Genetics 232
Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA 268
Physical and Chemical Control of Microbes 297
Drugs, Microbes, Host—The Elements
of Chemotherapy 327
Infection and Disease 362
Host Defenses I: Overview and
Nonspecific Defenses 397
Host Defenses II: Specific Immunity
and Immunization 424
Disorders in Immunity 459
Diagnosing Infections 490
Infectious Diseases Affecting the Skin and Eyes 512
Infectious Diseases Affecting the
Nervous System 550
Infectious Diseases Affecting the Cardiovascular
and Lymphatic Systems 584
Infectious Diseases Affecting the
Respiratory System 622
Infectious Diseases Affecting the
Gastrointestinal Tract 660
Infectious Diseases Affecting the
Genitourinary System 708
Environmental Microbiology 741
Applied Microbiology and Food
and Water Safety 762
About the Authors
Kelly Cowan has been a microbiologist at Miami University since 1993. She received her
Ph.D. at the University of Louisville, and later worked at the University of Maryland Center of
Marine Biotechnology and the University of Groningen in The Netherlands. Kelly has published
(with her students) twenty-four research articles stemming from her work on bacterial adhesion
mechanisms and plant-derived antimicrobial compounds. But her first love is teaching—both
doing it and studying how to do it better. She is chair of the Undergraduate Education Committee
of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). When she is not teaching or writing, Kelly hikes,
reads, takes scuba lessons, and still tries to (s)mother her three grown kids.
The addition of a proven educator as a digital author
makes a proven learning system even better.
Writing a textbook takes an enormous amount of time and effort. No textbook author has the time to write a great textbook
and also write an entire book’s worth of accompanying digital learning tools—at least not with any amount of success or
accuracy. In the past this material has often been built after the text publishes, but hopefully in time for classes to start!
With the new digital era upon us, it is time to begin thinking of digital tools differently. In classrooms across the country
thousands of students who are visual learners and have been using computers, video games, smartphones, music players,
and a variety of other gadgets since they could talk are begging for an interactive way to learn their course material.
Enter the digital author. With this third edition, we are so excited to add professor Jennifer Herzog
from Herkimer County Community College to the team. Jen has worked hand-in-hand with the textbook
author, creating online tools that truly complement and enhance the book’s content. She ensured that all
key topics in the book have interactive, engaging activities spanning levels of Bloom’s taxonomy, and
tied to Learning Outcomes in the book. Instructors can now assign material based on what they cover in
class, assess their students on the Learning Outcomes, and run reports indicating individual and/or class
performance on a variety of data. Because of Jen, we can now offer you a robust digital learning program,
tied to Learning Outcomes, to enhance your lecture and lab, whether you run a traditional, hybrid, or fully
Welcome to the microbial world! I think you will fi nd it fascinating to understand
how microbes interact with us, and with our environment. The interesting thing is
that each of you has already had a lot of experience with microbiology. For one
thing, you are thoroughly populated with microbes right now, and much of your
own genetic material actually came from viruses and other microbes. And while you
have probably had some bad experiences with quite a few microbes, in the form of
diseases, you have certainly been greatly benefi ted by them as well.
This book is suited for all kinds of students and doesn’t require any prerequisite
knowledge of biology or chemistry. If you are interested in entering the health care
profession in some way, this book will give you a strong background in the biology
of microorganisms, without overwhelming you with unnecessary details. Don’t
worry if you’re not in the health professions. A grasp of this topic is important for
everyone—and can be attained with this book.
This has been called the Age of Biology. The 20 th century was often thought
of as the Age of Physics, with the development of quantum theories and the
theory of relativity. The Human Genome Project is just the most visible sign of the
Biology Age; in the 21st century we have an unprecedented understanding of genes
and DNA, and a new respect for the beauty and power of microorganisms. This
book can give you the tools you’ll need to read about and interpret new biological
discoveries in the years ahead.
I dedicate this book to all public health workers who devote
their lives to bringing the advances and medicines enjoyed
by the industrialized world to all humans.
Connecting Instructors to Students
McGraw-Hill Higher Education and Blackboard ® have
teamed up! What does this mean for you?
Your life, simplified. Now you and your students can access McGraw-Hill
Connect™ and Create™ right from within your Blackboard course—all with one
single sign on! Say goodbye to the days of logging in to multiple applications.
Deep integration of content and tools. Not only do you get single sign
on with Connect and Create, you also get deep integration of McGraw-Hill
content and content engines right in Blackboard. Whether you’re choosing a
book for your course or building Connect assignments, all the tools you need
are right where you want them—inside of Blackboard.
Seamless gradebooks. Are you tired of keeping multiple gradebooks and
manually synchronizing grades into Blackboard? We thought so. When a student
completes an integrated Connect assignment, the grade for that assignment
automatically (and instantly) feeds your Blackboard grade center.
A solution for everyone. Whether your institution is already using
Blackboard or you just want to try Blackboard on your own, we have a solution
for you. McGraw-Hill and Blackboard can now offer you easy access to industry
leading technology and content, whether your campus hosts it, or we do. Be
sure to ask your local McGraw-Hill representative for details.
Author Kelly Cowan is now on Twitter! She shares interesting facts,
breaking news in microbiology, teaching hints and tips, and more. If you have
a Twitter account, follow her: @CowanMicro. To set up a Twitter account, go
and Students to Course Concepts
Introducing McGraw-Hill ConnectPlus™ Microbiology
McGraw-Hill ConnectPlus™ Microbiology integrated learning platform provides
auto-graded assessments; a customizable, assignable eBook; an adaptive diagnostic
tool; and powerful reporting against Learning Outcomes and level of difficulty—all
in an easy-to-use interface. Connect Microbiology is specific to your book and can be completely customized to your
course and specific Learning Outcomes, so you help your students connect to just the material they need to know.
Save time with auto-graded assessments and tutorials.
Fully editable, customizable, auto-graded interactive assignments using
high-quality art from the textbook, animations, and videos from a variety of
sources take you way beyond multiple choice. Assignable content is available
for every Learning Outcome in the book. Extremely high-quality content,
created by digital author Jennifer Herzog, includes case study modules,
concept mapping activities, animated learning modules, and more!
“. . . I and my adjuncts have reduced the time we spend on
grading by 90 percent and student test scores have risen,
on average, 10 points since we began using Connect!”
—William Hoover, Bunker Hill Community College
Gather assessment information
Generate powerful data related to student
performance against Learning Outcomes,
specific topics, level of difficulty, and more.