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Nationally Distinguished Nebraskans: A Brief Bio-Bibliography of 900 Individuals
Copyright © 2008 by E. A. Kral
A historical researcher and writer, the author previously taught in the public schools of
Livingston, CA and of Lincoln and Grand Island, NE for a combined total of 30 years. He is
currently engaged in researching and writing a bio-bibliographic reference on more than 900
nationally distinguished Nebraskans, and offers his preliminary findings in this Internet version.
Candidates for inclusion are any nationally distinguished person who was born in Nebraska or
who resided in the state for any length of time after 1854, the year the Kansas-Nebraska Act was
passed. Selection criteria for inclusion involves meeting most, if not all, of the following
conditions or traits:
1. A pioneer in a field, a founder, inventor, developer, creator, opinion maker, significant leader,
record holder, performer or major philanthropist.
2. Listed in reliable reputable national references or publications.
3. Longevity of accomplishment, preferably a major portion of one’s lifetime.
4. Magnitude of accomplishment (the pinnacle or near-pinnacle of one’s field or expertise) and
contribution to society.
5. Recognized as distinguished by peers and audiences elsewhere.
6. Recipient of major national awards, honors or recognition.
The names of individuals who have been known to perpetrate harmful or significant fraud or
were convicted of a felony are not included.
The author has provided selected entries based on above-stated criteria, and has therefore not
intended to include everyone who has made important contributions on the national level. Other
authors are encouraged to research and write about those who have achieved on the local, state
and regional levels as well as the national arena, and families can benefit from preparing
histories based on their own ancestry.
Readers are urged to pursue the suggested readings for each entry to learn more about an
individual’s accomplishment. If the local library does not house the sources listed, consider using
the interlibrary loan system.
Microfilm of all Nebraska newspapers is housed in the public reading room of the Nebraska
State Historical Society at 1500 R Street in Lincoln, which is open daily except Sunday, Monday
and holidays. Phone the NSHS at (402) 471-3270 or (800) 833-6747 to learn hours the reading
room is open.
The microform room at Love Library on the city campus of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln
houses microfilm of several national newspapers such as the New York Times as well as many
journals. Phone Love Library at (402) 472-2848 for access hours.
This Internet edition is available on websites hosted by the Nebraska State Education
Association, the Nebraska Press Association, and the Gage County Historical Society as a
resource for Nebraska educators and their students as well as anyone else, such as journalists and
state leaders. The organizations hosting this website version are in no way responsible for the
content or accuracy of the information provided by the author.
The author grants permission and encourages educators and librarians and county
historical society directors to print the complete file (introduction, table of contents, brief
biographical entries, and index of entrants) for placement in local collections for long-term
access to the public.
Upon completion of the project in a few years, the author will donate his original files for
addition to the E. A. Kral Personal Papers Collection housed in the Archives at Love Library on
the University of Nebraska-Lincoln city campus.
Duplicate files that contain the majority of information housed in the author’s original files are
now accessible to the public at the Gage County Museum at 2nd & Court Streets in Beatrice.
Prior arrangements are necessary. Contact staff members by phone (402) 228-1679 or email:
For convenience of readers, brief highlights of many significant accomplishments by Nebraskans
in all fields nationally are provided in the Table of Contents. The biographical entries reveal that
hundreds of persons connected to the state by birth and by residence have achieved the pinnacle
of their fields of endeavor, and have been credited by their peers for major influence,
innovations, inventions, and other notable efforts.
In the area of public leadership, the state can claim one U.S. President, three U.S. Vice
Presidents, sixteen who have served in Cabinet-level executive positions, ten in White House
assignments in direct contact with our nation’s President, and several who have held high offices
of various federal agencies. Two have served in major political offices in foreign countries.
In the private sector, the state can claim one person who was ranked as the 13th wealthiest
American in history, founders of many enduring businesses of national influence, and chief
executive officers of dozens of large corporations as well as educational institutions.
Indicators of significant achievements by Nebraska-connected professionals in all fields exist not
only in their accomplishments but also in the many forms of high recognition. This Internet
version includes 179 entrants who have been included in the American National Biography, the
prestigious biographical reference published by Oxford University Press. Also noteworthy is the
fact that 42 were featured on the cover of Time, and several on the covers of Business Week,
Newsweek, U.S. News & World Report, and other magazines.
Thirty-two entrants were elected to the National Academy of Sciences (and several more to the
NAS companion organizations of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of
Engineering) and seven to the National Academy of Design. Two were inducted into the
National Inventors Hall of Fame.
As for awards, six Nebraskans have won Nobel Prizes, three more were nominated, and one who
refused nomination; twenty-one the Pulitzer Prize (17 individual and 4 group), thirteen the
Horatio Alger Award, 13 the Presidential Medal of Freedom, six the Congressional Gold Medal,
six the National Medal of Science, six the National Medal of Technology, and two U.S. poet
In mass communication, music, and performing arts, there have been 16 different recipients of
Academy Awards (some more than once), 16 Emmy Awards, 11 Golden Globe Awards, eight
Tony Awards, eight Peabody Awards (4 individual and 3 group), six Grammy Awards, and two
Obie Awards. There have been 29 persons honored with a star placed on the Hollywood Walk of
Among the indicators of high achievement in the field of sports are 24 Olympic gold medal
winners, at least 21 college coaches who won national championships, 21 athletes inducted into
professional halls of fame (and 10 more in the entries of short-term residents), one NCAA female
athlete of the year, and two Sullivan Award winners.
The author could not have identified and researched the accomplishments of so many
Nebraskans alone. He therefore acknowledges the research assistance of archivists and staff
members of public and private repositories and institutions statewide and nationwide, and
appreciates many instances of cooperation from staff members of Doane College Library at
Crete, Love Library at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the public libraries at Beatrice, Crete,
Lincoln, Omaha, and Wilber, the Nebraska State Historical Society at Lincoln, the Douglas
County Historical Society at Omaha, and the Gage County Historical Society at Beatrice. Special
gratitude is also extended to state newspapers as well as relatives and friends of entrants for their
valuable assistance. And last but not least, the author thanks the staff of the Crete News and the
Nebraska State Education Association for preparation of the electronic version for placement on
the Internet.
Suggestions or corrections or inquiries may be mailed to the author at PO Box 685, Wilber, NE
68465. Or contact Al Koontz or Karen Kilgarin of the NSEA at (402) 475-7611 or (800) 742-
0047 or email: akoontz@nsea.org. Or contact Allen Beermann of the NPA at (402) 476-2851 or
(800) 369-2850 or email: nebpress@nebpress.com. Or contact Lesa Arterburn of Gage County
Museum at (402) 228-1679 or email: gagecountymuseum@beatricene.com.
Click here to view Table of Contents arranged in 22 categories that offer highlights of most
entries. Once you have selected a category, click heading to view the entries in that section. All
entries in each section are arranged in alphabetical order.
Click here if you wish to view the Index of Entrants.
Click here if you wish to bypass the Table of Contents and Index of Entrants and instead view
the 207-page document 900 Famous Nebraskans (PDF file)
You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer to view the entries, and allow
sufficient time for downloading. If you do not have Acrobat Reader on your computer, a free
download is available. Download Adobe Acrobat Reader.
1. Agriculture
Included in the 30 entries in this section is information about 11 inventors or developers of
plants, the world's largest recorder of disease-free Duroc hogs, the second largest cattle feeder in
the nation, one of the first to file a claim under the Homestead Act on January 1, 1863, developer
of first course in cooperative marketing at any college in the nation, one of first in nation to
reveal excessive use of chemical nitrogen could reduce crop yield and to warn that improper use
of fertilizer would eventually pollute groundwater, and first woman elected Fellow of American
Society of Agronomy, eight members of the National Academy of Sciences, two members of the
National Academy of Engineering, two recipients of the National Medal of Science, one World
Food Prize winner, and one Nobel Prize nominee.
2. Arts, Architecture and Design
Featured in the 41 entries is sculptor of Mt. Rushmore, developer of world's 20th largest
architectural and engineering firm, creator of first newspaper comic strip, father of
African-American art, cover illustrator for several magazines, creators of Kewpie and Terri Lee
dolls, founder of "ashcan school" of art, pioneer in use of textiles, first to photograph
Yellowstone Park, fashion designers of Barbie doll and the "sexy dress" for actresses, creator of
"Gasoline Alley" comic strip, the longest to serve as White house photographer, creator of
fashions for flapper and collegiate era, one of originators of new American art movement called
Magic Realism, first American to receive gold medal in a Paris salon exhibit, a Pulitzer
Prize-winning editorial cartoonist, and seven members of the National Academy of Design.
3. Business
Among the 81 entries featured is the 13th wealthiest American in history, founders of one of the
world's largest scientific testing laboratories to insure quality and safety of products and
medications, Hallmark Cards, Mutual of Omaha, Phillips Petroleum Company, and literary study
guides Cliffs Notes; co-founders of one of six companies that built Hoover Dam and largest
supplier of computer input-output equipment, owners of world's first and largest supplier of
center pivot irrigation systems, Gallup Organization, Morton Salt Company, the largest
manufacturer of scooter, golf cart, and mailster products, pioneers of first nationwide fiber-optic
network, first electronic stock quotation network for brokerage industry, one of first discount
brokerage companies and introducer of internet trading, of ridge-till plant system through design
of row crop farm machinery, of crisscross locater directories, manufacturer of Polyethylene food
wrap and bags, the world's largest individual hotel operator, the world's highest salaried woman
executive in the 1920s, inventors of numerous electronic devices, vise-grip pliers, and early
version of usable aviator parachute; chief executives of Chrysler, Coca-Cola, Dow Chemical,
Eastern Airlines, Eastman Kodak, General Electric, General Mills, Hearst, Northwest Airlines,
Peter Kiewit Construction, Sinclair Oil, 3-M, VF Corporation, and Warner Lambert; three
appeared on cover of Business Week, two on cover of Time, and one on cover of Fortune, ten
recipients of Horatio Alger Award, one of Peabody Award, one of Presidential Medal of
Freedom, and one of Congressional Medal of Honor.
4. Education
Information in 55 entries includes 31 college presidents, superintendents of public schools in
Washington, DC and Oakland and Los Angeles, California, one U.S. Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, one U.S. Commissioner of Education, and one Deputy, the originator of safety standards
and yellow color for school buses, a pioneer of physical education and sports for women,
initiator of National Assessment of Education Progress, first woman vice chancellor for
academic affairs in the nation, first blind public school teacher in nation, founder of three junior
colleges, co-founder of New School of Social Research, two leaders of progressive education
based on John Dewey's theories, a secretary and founding editor of National Education
Association, and one appeared on cover of Time, and one recipient of Ramon Magsaysay Award,
the Asian equivalent of the Nobel Prize.
5. Engineering and Technology
Featured among the 28 entries are inventors of magnetic core memory for digital computer (the
forerunner of the personal computer), computer graphics, computer self-correction program,
stroboscopic light, glass ceramics, the center pivot irrigation system, the round hay baler, the
nickel-iron alloy named Permalloy, graphic arts paper handling and presses; pioneer developers
of world’s leading tractor laboratory, of electrification plan of New York's Grand Central
Terminal, the Sao Paulo, Brazil industrial center, the International Business Machines family of
early computers, the first high bypass turbofan jet engine, gasohol and an ethanol recovery
system, and novel aerosol instrumentation; co-pioneer of microwave industry, pioneer of field of
agriculatural engineering, developer of first photocopy machine, co-discoverer of blunt nose
cone on space vehicles for safe re-entry, chief engineers of Union Pacific transcontinental
railroad in 1869 and San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in 1936, a NASA flight control engineer
during Apollo 13 mission, a NASA aerospace engineer and astronaut, co-author of leading
reference for field of chemical engineering, builder of engine for Wright Brothers airplane in
1903; ten members of National Academy of Engineering, two inducted into National Inventors
Hall of Fame, two elected to National Academy of Sciences, one recipient of National Medal of
Science, one of Presidential Medal of Freedom, and five of National Medal of Technology.
6. Food and Nutrition
Among the 11 entries is information on pioneers of convenience food industry and cookless breakfast
food shredded wheat, inventors of chocolate-coated ice cream bar Eskimo Pie, Kool Aid,
Reuben sandwich, and TV dinner, the co-organizer of American Dietetic Association, authority
on herbs and supplements, consultant to U.S. Olympic Committee, and recipient of Borden
7. Journalism and Mass Communication
In 55 entries is information about the founders of Radio One Network, pioneers of 24-hour
television Weather Channel, of RFD-TV channel for rural America, and Congressional Digest,
pioneer of adult education programs on radio and television, originators of early morning
broadcast on radio and "sob sister" reporting, three television network anchors, three White
House correspondents, director of U.S. Information Agency, three authorities on social manners
and consumer issues, one of the first women to be a newspaper reporter, an editor inducted into
Chicago Press Club Hall of Fame, 11 winners of Pulitzer Prize, six of Emmy Award, and five of
Peabody Award.
8. Law and Landmark Cases
Among the 18 entries is information about plaintiffs in 1923 substantive due process case and
1879 ruling that Native Americans possess civil rights, judge in Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of
Appeals who influenced desegregation in South, one who served as U.S. Attorney General, one
as U.S. Solicitor General, one as U.S. Attorney General for Southern District of New York,
director of FBI, first director of community dispute resolution section in U.S. Department of
Justice, co-prosecutors of criminals Al Capone, Charles Manson, and Sirhan Sirhan, and authors
of five-volume Jurisprudence in 1959 and bill enacted in 1889 that raised statutory age of consent
for women in District of Columbia.
9. Literature
Featured in 48 entries are four authors of best selling novels, six of books for children and parents,
five of books that were basis for films, five of Western novels and biographies, two folklorists, a
classical scholar, three Pulitzer Prize winners, originator of Columbia Encyclopedia in 1935,
editor of second largest university press in nation, an authority on women authors, co-founders
of Willa Cather Pioneer Memorial, of one of three oldest continuously published scholarly
magazines in nation, and of English curriculum for public schools nationwide, and creator of mystery
form "whodunin?" and two selected as U.S. poet laureate.
10. Medicine and Healthcare
Included in the 49 entries in this section is information about inventor of artificial joint
replacements, early designer of lens implant, co-discoverers of scarlet fever treatment and
prevention and minoxidil treatment for baldness, pioneers of treatment of bone fractures and
wounds with plaster-of-Paris cast, the use of laboratory animals for inoculation experiments and
disease identification, and deinstitutionalization of mentally ill patients, originator of free radical
theory of aging, first to verify effectiveness of anti-coagulant dicumerol for human beings, first
to verify that mosquitoes transmitted yellow fever, first to verify the means of transmission of
Rocky Mountain Fever and typhus fever, and first to perform total hip replacement surgery using
vitallium, developer of first separate curriculum for forensic medicine in 1955, founder of
transcultural nursing, designer of longest and most comprehensive aging study in Canada,
pioneers of anti-smoking and anti-cholesterol crusades, four cancer experts, one liver transplant
expert, two personal physicians to U.S. Presidents while in White House, a U.S. Commissioner
of Food and Drug Administration, one of ten best anatomists in nation, world's top 100
longest-lived person, and first physician to own and use an airplane for professional purposes;
one person elected to National Academy of Sciences, one recipient of National Medal of Science
and Albert Lasker Award, two Nobel Prize nominees, and one Congressional Gold Medal.
11. Military Science
In the 18 entries is information about commander of Allied Expeditionary Force in World War I,
two noted generals in World War II, commander of Strategic Air Command, commander of
National Guard Bureau, chief of Signal Corps, the originator of flood control plan for Missouri
River Valley in 1944, developer of portable steel treadway bridge on pontoons, an expert in
naval aviation and carrier-force operations, superintendent of U.S. Naval Academy, an air hero
during World War II, a woman pioneer aviator during World War II, a NASA astronaut and a
test pilot, two officers noted for surviving captivity and saving American lives, five who
appeared on cover of Time, one recipient of Presidential Medal of Freedom, two of
Congressional Gold Medals, and one of Pulitzer Prize.
12. Music
Featured among the 36 entries are ten composers, three bandleaders, two piano players, a
saxophonist, a trumpeter, two opera singers, a pop singer, a rock and roll idol, a forerunner of
rock and roll, the developer of first computer sound synthesis languages, and co-founder of
Capitol Records; numerous hit songs and recordings include "Chiseled in Stone," "From the
Land of Sky-Blue Waters," "Sweet Leilani," "Wabash Cannonball," and "Who's Afraid of the
Big Bad Wolf?" as well as film themes "Camelot" and "Batman"; three recipients of Academy
Award and one nominee, three recipients of Grammy Award and one nominee, winners of
Pulitzer Prize, Peabody Award, and Horatio Alger Award, two inducted into Nashville
Songwriter's Hall of Fame, one in Grammy Hall of Fame, one in Songwriter's Hall of Fame of
National Academy of Popular Music, and one elected to National Academy of Sciences.
13. Performing Arts
Among the 78 entries featured are 30 actors and actresses, three dancers, six producers, five
directors, four writers, two playwrights, two television show hosts, two comedians, two Miss
America winners, a puppeteer, film editor, casting director, magician, and pioneer rodeo cowgirl;
manager of Chautauqua, founder of Culver City, and originator of theatre-in-the-round during
modern times in 1932; at least 12 recipients of Academy Award, 11 of Golden Globe Award,
eleven of Emmy Award, seven of Tony Award, two of Obie Award, one of Grammy Award, one
of Peabody Award, one of Golden Boot Award, one of Presidential Medal of Freedom, and one
inducted into Emmy Hall of Fame; ten appeared on cover of Time, three on cover of Newsweek,
and three on cover of Life; one person was matinee idol in 1930s, one appeared in seven of 100
greatest American movies, one ranked fifth greatest screen legend, and one ranked second
greatest television star of all time.
14. Philosophy and Religion
The 13 entries in this section involve the founder of Boys Town and founder of Back to the
Bible Ministry, speaker of “The Lutheran Hour,” chronicler of early Mormon history and
originator of roadometer, scholar who helped popularize religion in America during latter four
decades of 20th century, and author on symbolism of early North Americans and inscriptions on
Nebraska State Capitol.
15. Psychology
Featured among the 15 entries is information about pioneers of American psychology, the field
of gifted education, research of the emotional development of children, the academic field of
adult development and aging; developers of a model for classification of mental abilities, a
behavioral learning theory based on stimulus-response associations, a non-verbal assessment of
learning aptitude designed for deaf children, applied psychology; founder of one of first
laboratories in experimental psychology open to undergraduates, contributor to scientific study
of memory and learning, theoretician who presented basis for Head Start Program, and best
selling author on personal and family themes in latter half of 1990s; two members of National
Academy of Sciences.
16. Public Affairs
Included in the 77 entries is information about one U.S. President, three U.S. Vice Presidents, four
as U.S. Secretary of Commerce, five of Agriculture, two of Navy, two of Interior, two of
Defense, one of State, and one of War; one person was presidential nominee three times, one
was vice presidential nominee, two served on board of governors of U.S. Federal Reserve
System, one as director of Small Business Administration, one as chairman of Federal Farm
Board, one as first vice chairman of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, one as president pro
tempore of U.S. Senate, one as President of Latvia, one as Chief of Cabinet Ministers of
Argentina, one as Mayor of Los Angeles, one as special counsel and one as personal secretary to
U.S. President, one as political aide to four U.S. Presidents; first U.S. President to hold the
nation's two top posts without being elected to either, the eighth woman in history to serve in
U.S. Senate, the first woman U.S. Senator to succeed a woman U.S. Senator, first woman to
serve as diplomat in U.S. Foreign Service; one person succeeded in making electricity available
in rural America, another in passage of constitutional amendment to limit presidency to two
terms, another in introducing legislation that was forerunner of Food and Drug Act and later the
Food and Drug Administration, another in extending social security benefits to public employees
and self-employed persons, another in founding Arbor Day; nine appeared on cover of Time, two
on cover of Newsweek, two received Horatio Alger Award, seven the Presidential Medal of
Freedom, two Congressional Gold Medals, and one the Nobel Prize for Peace.
17. Science
In the 44 entries is information on founder of science of parasitology, pioneers in the field of
botany, the development of nuclear energy, the theory of shared electron pair bond, in
development of general physiology, in plant tissue culture, in development of photoelectric
methods for measuring the light of stars, in application of mass spectrometry, in development of
biological mass spectrometry, in discovery that plastic can (after certain modifications) be made
electrically conductive, in the use of radioactive potassium-40 in accurate geologic dating, in
developing the first standards for using x-ray equipment in hospitals, in developing a technique
to increase latex production, in demonstrating how genes control the basic chemistry of the
living cell, in inventing artificial enzymes that imitate "the real thing"; builder of first privately
owned nuclear reactor in New England, and co-discoverer of most distant quasars ever observed
in universe; two appeared on cover of Time, one received Enrico Fermi Award, one Garvan
Medal, one Ian Campbell Medal, one Oerstad Medal, one National Medal of Science, and three
Nobel Prizes; 16 elected to National Academy of Sciences.
18. Social Reform
In this section, the 22 entries contain information about first woman in nation voted into
statewide elective office by an all-male electorate, an advocate who influenced women's rights
leaders, a co-founder of settlement houses in urban areas, a contributor to compulsory
temperance education program in public schools, and a feminist activist; two Native-American
peacemakers with the United States during 19th century, two advocates of Native-American
rights, two who opposed efforts to confine Native Americans to reservations under control of
federal authorities, and founder of American Indian Institute; two African-American leaders of
civil rights movement in mid-20th century, leader who helped influence creation of Jewish
national homeland, leader of movement that influenced passage of Social Security Act in 1935,
nominee for vice president of Populist Party; one person selected among 10 outstanding women
in 1936, one person's memory honored by a monument being carved in a mountain, two
appeared on cover of Newsweek, one inducted into National Women's Fall of Fame at Seneca
Falls, New York, one recipient of Presidential Medal of Freedom, one refused nomination of
Nobel Prize for Peace.
19. Social Science
In the 31 entries is information about a pioneer advocate of federal aid to irrigation in the
American West, author of expose of corrupt Internal Revenue practices, initiator of programs to
improve conditions in Southern rural schools, an advocate of application of science to the
improvement of social life, pioneer of economic theory for forecasting business fluctuations and
for assessing effects of various economic policy measures, pioneer of field of garden and
horticultural archeology, one of the first Native Americans to achieve a notable scholarly career,
one of the first to create a modern scientific opinion poll, developer of recognition of right of
freedom of expression by academics, and introducer of definition of criminal to include "white
collar crime"; three authors of widely-used textbooks, two economic consultants to U.S.
Congress, one of 12 most notable women in 1931 national magazine poll, one who appeared on
cover of Time, one recipient of Joseph Wood Krutch Medal and one of Woodrow Wilson Prize,
one elected to National Academy of Sciences, two recipients of Pulitzer Prize, and one of Nobel
20. Sports
In this category are 87 entries about pioneer developers of youth sports safety equipment such as
double ear-flap batter's helmet and aluminum bat, the one-handed jump shot in basketball, the
fast-break offense in college basketball, inventor of six-man football, innovations in archery
industry, television wrestling, college wrestling rules, female ultradistance runner who holds
records in two age groups and performed in over 100 marathons, first black head coach at a
predominantly white college to win a national championship when his wrestling team won 1970
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics championship, one of first women athletic
directors of coed college program in nation, co-pioneer of movement to include badminton in
Olympics for the United States, first Hispanic diver to win NCAA championship and silver
medal in world championship, and first person in history to score an ABC-sanctioned 900 series;
one person holds record in professional basketball for consecutive games played, one in
professional football for consecutive games played by offensive lineman, and first in
professional football to gain 1,000 yards rushing and receiving in single season, one college
football player ranked as 10th best in history, record holder of career rushing yards in football in
all-college divisions, and one named 1939 Associated Press male athlete of the year; one of most
successful high school football coaches in nation, one women’s softball head coach who ranks
among top 18 most victories all-time in all-college divisions, one women's college basketball
coach with over 700 victories, one men's college basketball coach with over 800 victories, first
Olympian to serve as chief executive officer of U.S. Olympic Committee, amateur and two
professional golf players with major championships, world champions in heavyweight boxing
and wrestling and in cowboy events; 21 college coaches of national championships in basketball,
football, gymnastics, track, volleyball, and wrestling, including one coach who earned eight in
gymnastics; one manager won two baseball world series, eight persons inducted into
professional baseball hall of fame, one in basketball, three in football, four in horse racing, one
in car racing, one in golf hall of fame, one received Sullivan Award, one received NCAA female
athlete of the year, and two appeared on cover of Time.
21. Olympic Medalists
Among the 47 entries are numerous bronze and silver medalists in basketball, equestrian,
fencing, golf, swimming, track and field, volleyball, wheelchair, and wrestling; there are 24 gold
medal winners; in women's events, one in 100-meter and in 200-meter backstroke, one in
three-meter springboard diving, and one in three-position smallbore rifle shooting; in men's
events, two in team basketball, two in team gymnastics, one individual in horizontal bar in
gymnastics, one in freestyle aerial skiing, two in butterfly, one in 800-meter freestyle relay, one
in 400-meter medley, and one in 400-meter freestyle relay in swimming, one in long jump, one
in 200-meter sprint, and two in 400-meter relay in track and field, one in 136-pound freestyle,
one in middleweight freestyle, one in 161-pound freestyle, and one in super heavyweight
Greco-Roman in wrestling; one in light-heavyweight boxing; three in wheelchair events in two
Paralympics and 41 in swimming during six Paralympics; youngest person in Olympic history to
win individual gold medal in any sport, first Native-American woman to compete in Olympics,
one of world's fastest male sprinters in 1960s, second fastest woman sprinter in history, first
American gymnast to win a gold medal in non-boycotted Olympics since 1932, first
visually-impaired athlete to earn NCAA Division I scholarship, pioneer in amateur and
professional basketball; one inducted into Women's Basketball Hall of Fame at Knoxville,
Tennessee, one into International Swimming Hall of Fame, and two into National Wrestling Hall
of Fame, one of ten outstanding young Americans in year 2000, and one recipient of Sullivan
22. Short-Term Residents of Distinction
Of the 35 entries included, one involves originator of garden city movement which influenced
town planning internationally, one the most acclaimed aviator in history, one who made first but
unsuccessful attempt by dirigible to cross Atlantic Ocean, one of top five U.S. commanders
during World War II, a Congressman who introduced successful legislation for federal student