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Java ™ 2:
The Complete Reference,
Fifth Edition
About the Author
Herbert Schildt is the world’s leading
programming author. He is an authority on the
C, C++, Java, and C# languages, and is a master
Windows programmer. His programming books
have sold more that 3 million copies worldwide
and have been translated into all major foreign
languages. He is the author of numerous
bestsellers, including Java 2: The Complete
Reference, Java 2: A Beginner's Guide, Java 2
Programmers Reference, C++: The Complete
Reference, C: The Complete Reference, and C#:
The Complete Reference. Schildt holds a master's
degree in computer science from the University
of Illinois. He can be reached at his consulting
office at (217) 586-4683.
Java™
2:
The Complete Reference,
Fifth Edition
Herbert Schildt
McGraw-Hill/Osborne
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DOI: 10.1036/007222858X
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Contents at a Glance
Part I
The Java Language
1 The Genesis of Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 An Overview of Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3 Data Types, Variables, and Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5 Control Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6 Introducing Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
7 A Closer Look at Methods and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
8 Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
9 Packages and Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
10 Exception Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
11 Multithreaded Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
12 I/O, Applets, and Other Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
v
vi Java™ 2: The Complete Reference
Part II
The Java Library
13 String Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
14 Exploring java.lang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
15 java.util Part 1: The Collections Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
16 java.util Part 2: More Utility Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
17 Input/Output: Exploring java.io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
18 Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
19 The Applet Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
20 Event Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
21 Introducing the AWT: Working with Windows,
Graphics, and Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687
22 Using AWT Controls, Layout Managers, and Menus . . . . . . . 735
23 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799
24 New I/O, Regular Expressions, and Other Packages . . . . . . . 843
Part III
Software Development Using Java
25 Java Beans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
26 A Tour of Swing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
27 Servlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949
28 Migrating from C++ to Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 981
Part IV
Applying Java
29 The DynamicBillboard Applet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
30 ImageMenu: An Image-Based Web Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047
31 The Lavatron Applet: A Sports Arena Display . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057
32 Scrabblet: A Multiplayer Word Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069
A Using Java’s Documentation Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1133
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxv
Part I
The Java Language
1 The Genesis of Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Java’s Lineage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The Birth of Modern Programming: C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The Need for C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
The Stage Is Set for Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The Creation of Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The C# Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Why Java Is Important to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Java Applets and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Portability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Java’s Magic: The Bytecode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
The Java Buzzwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Simple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Object-Oriented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
vii